The Three Lions manager has until June 4 to whittle down the 35-man long list given to Federation Internationale de Football Association - but he always meant to name his 23 early in a bid to strip unnecessary anxiety and pressure from preparations.
Other notable omissions from the squad include midfielder Jack Wilshere, Southampton left-back Ryan Bertrand and Newcastle midfielder Jonjo Shelvey. But the Newcastle midfield will have to watch the World Cup at his home this time around. Still, his ability would probably make him a starter for the Three Lions, resulting in many voicing their displeasure about his absence. Another uncapped player on the plane will be Nick Pope, who was magnificent in front of goal for Burnley this season.
Chelsea's young midfielder Ruben Loftus-Cheek has earned selection after an impressive season on loan at Crystal Palace. While this is not his first major tournament for the Three Lions (he was also a member of their Euro 2016 squad), the World Cup is the ultimate prize in the footballing pantheon, and this is the youngster's first experience of the biggest stage in world football.
Cahill, 32, was "shocked" to learn he was being called back in from the cold, having not played for his country since the 1-0 World Cup qualifying win over Slovenia at Wembley over seven months ago.
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This comes after Jonathan Thurston and Cooper Cronk chose to retire from rep commitments at the end of previous year . In that period he has missed just one game - the series opener in 2010 due to injury - and won a record 26 matches.
"Everyone wants to play in a World Cup - everyone wants to play in every match", Southgate added.
Goalkeepers: Jack Butland (Stoke), Jordan Pickford (Everton), Nick Pope (Burnley).
The identity of England's captain and first-choice goalkeeper in Russian Federation are also sure to come up when Southgate speaks to the media.
"People ask me about the toughest decision and it's Joe Hart". Only two players are over the age of 30, and only one player has more than 38 caps.
Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain was also omitted from the squad after he suffered a knee ligament injury in the Champions League semi-final victory over Roma.