It was the fifth time in a row a World Cup host nation has won a penalty shootout, Federation Internationale de Football Association said.
The 2010 world champions took the lead courtesy after Sergei Ignashevich turned the ball into his own net in a freaky goal under pressure from Ramos.
Argentina held the previous record of 703 successful passes in a World Cup match against Greece in 2010, although Opta has only collected this data since 1966.
Another big side were sent crashing out of the 2018 World Cup after Spain suffered a 4-3 defeat on penalties to tournament hosts Russian Federation on Sunday.
Russian Federation were awarded a penalty five minutes before half-time after a handball from Gerard Pique, with Artem Dzyuba stepping up to the mark to restore parity despite Spain's dominance of the ball.
Russian Federation took off Zhirkov and brought on central defender Vladimir Granat at the break, but Spain had the first chance of the second half when Marco Asensio's cross was deflected goalwards by Alba and saved by Akinfeev. They were checking the game footage for holding on Pique and Ramos, but they have decided that it wasn't a penalty.
Russia's Artyom Dzyuba celebrates scoring his side's opening goal.
FW Diego Costa, 5 - Completed just four of his eight passes in the first half as he was crowded out by Russia's three centre-backs.
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The second game of the day got off to a blistering start in Nizhny Novgorod.
Spain didn't do enough as they searched for a victor in both regulation time and the additional 30 minutes, with Russia's defenders keeping their concentration throughout.
Spain had 25 shots, nine of which were on frame, but Akinfeev saved them all, only conceded on an unfortunate own goal.
A deep corner was met by Dzyuba, whose header struck the outstretched arm of Pique, with referee Bjorn Kuipers contemplating his decision before pointing to the spot.
Akinfeev was the hero for Russian Federation, saving two spot kicks in the shootout, but he deserves acknowledgement as part of a wider defensive gameplan from the host nation.
It was a distressing case of déjà vu for Fernando Hierro, who had been through it all before as a player, having taken the first penalty in Spain's shoot-out defeat by Korea Republic in 2002. They make their first World Cup knockout stage appearance in the post-Soviet era as the ultimate underdogs.
Rodrigo went close in the 109th minute as the substitute skinned his marker with a sharp turn to race away down the right flank and advance into the box before forcing Akinfeev to parry away his angled shot from six yards out.
The Vatreni were back on level terms soon afer through Mario Mandzukic, but neither side was unable to land a decisive blow before the end of the 90 minutes.