After the entire first day was lost to rain, further wet conditions forced a delayed start with England captain Joe Root eventually winning the toss and putting India in to bat on Friday.
The exit of England´s all-time leading Test run-scorer meant 20-year-old debutant batsman Ollie Pope walked out with the hosts in trouble at 32 for two.
With Woakes, the first of England's three bowling all-rounders, at the crease alongside Bairstow, India could sense an opportunity to expose the tail.
On Friday, during the rain-affected day two of the second Test, Arjun, who is now in London for a training session with MCC Young Cricketers, helped out the grand staff at Lord's.
Jonny Bairstow and Chris Woakes celebrate their partnership on the third day of the second Test at Lord's between England and India.
Captain Kohli hasn't played the same XI in successive Tests for 36 matches, dating back to the 2014 Adelaide Test in which he led India in whites for the first time in his career.
Adama Traore joins Wolves in club-record £18m deal
His club Besiktas are keen to sell and although Wolves have looked at the player there is no interest in signing him. He moved to Villa in 2015 but left after the Midlands side's relegation to the Championship the following year.
Coming back to the side, No.3 Cheteshwar Pujara survived 25 deliveries for 1 run before a mix-up with skipper Virat Kohli (23), cut short the Saurashtra Test specialist's stay even as rain stopped play once again. Against South Africa in January, he became the first batsman to be run out twice in a test since 2000 and was the first Indian player to do so in test history.
Only off-spinner Ravichandran Ashwin, batting at number eight, provided any real resistance, making 29 in a 49-minute knock before he was trapped lbw by Stuart Broad.
It was then left to Anderson to have the final say as he capped a stunning day with the final wicket of Ishant Sharma to leave India in complete disarray.
With clouds expected to hang over the iconic cricket ground over the next few days, India may rethink their strategy of playing two spinners.
Batsman Pujara was brought in for Shikhar Dhawan.
Before this series, KL Rahul's previous Test innings against England brought him 199 at Chennai in December 2016.