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James Allison of the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and Tasuku Honjo of Kyoto University learned how cancer can put the brakes on the immune system — and how to release those brakes.

He is the first MD Anderson scientist to receive the world's most preeminent award for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

Japanese scientist Tasuku Honjo, who jointly won the Nobel Medicine Prize with James P Allison of the USA, is credited for his discovery of a protein that contributed to the development of an immunotherapeutic drug, opening a pathway for an altogether new way of treating cancer.

Dr. James P. Allison, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, poses for a photo in NY in 2015. For many scientists, he said, a driving motivation "is simply to push the frontiers of knowledge".

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From 1977-1984 he was a faculty member at University of Texas System Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas; from 1985-2004 at University of California, Berkeley and from 2004-2012 at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York. His research eventually led to the development of pembrolizumab (Keytruda) and nivolumab (Opdivo), both of which were approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma in 2014.

Allison's work explored how a protein can function as a brake on the immune system, and how the immune cells can combat tumors if the brake is released.

Dr. Allison was one of two scientists who discovered the blocking effect for one such brake - CTLA-4 or checkpoint inhibitor molecule - in 1995.

His drug, known commercially as Yervoy, became the first to extend the survival of patients with late-stage melanoma. It was a breakthrough drug that turned an invariably fatal cancer that killed patients within months into one that could be cured, albeit in only a minority (about 20 percent) of patients.

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In 2016, after being treated with a drug inspired by Prof Honjo's research, he announced that he no longer needed treatment.

Now, ipilimumab is also approved to treat colorectal cancer and a type of kidney cancer called renal cell carcinoma, and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

Lanier adds he has nominated Allison for the Nobel several times, but that it probably took the committee some time to figure out who deserved to receive it alongside him. "They are living proof of the power of basic science, of following our urge to learn and to understand how things work".

Honjo, a 76-year-old professor at the university, said Japanese pharmaceutical firms are too small to bear the risk of investing in research toward manufacturing products, even if fundamental research has shown good results.

Checkpoint inhibitors have proved to be stunningly successful treatments for many different kinds of cancer, in particular, melanoma.

Cancerous tumors are notoriously skilled at dodging our immune systems.

Immunotherapy uses the body's own immune system to fight cancer instead of other methods like radiation, surgery or chemotherapy.

He then developed this concept into a new approach for treating patients.

The work of Allison and Honjo has given us hope of delivering mundane miracles to everyone with cancer, and turning cancer patients back into people.