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President Trump, who has called climate change a "hoax", has already said the USA will pull out of the Paris Climate Accord, which this report said the world is unlikely to meet anyway.

Many people might think that they have little personal involvement with any of these - but the IPCC authors say that's not the case.

Governments invited the IPCC to prepare the report in 2015 when they adopted the Paris Agreement to combat climate change.

Keeping the Earth's temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius means making rapid, unprecedented changes in the way people use energy to eat, travel and live or we risk even more extreme weather and loss of species, a United Nations report said on Monday.

While government representatives are frankly buried by more high-quality scientific information than they really need to make sound decisions about the urgency of slowing climate change, they ordered up a 1.5°C addendum.

Coal consumption by Indian thermal generators needs to be cut by two thirds within 2030 and to nearly zero by 2050 if India has to limit temperature rise to 1.5 degrees said Greenpeace India in a statement.

The world is now warming up at about 0.2 C each decade, and has already warmed by more than 1 C compared to the mid-19th century.

Hans-Otto Portner, a bioscientist and member of one of the IPCC working groups, said: "Every extra bit of warming matters, especially since warming of 1.5C or higher increases the risk associated with long-lasting or irreversible changes, such as the loss of some ecosystems".

Half as many people would suffer from lack of water.

Limiting warming to 0.5 degrees from now means the world can keep "a semblance" of the ecosystems we have.

There is some good news.

"If we're to achieve those sorts of cuts in emissions, then we need deep changes in all aspects of society - that's energy, land, building, transport, food, diet, cities, etc".

At current rates of greenhouse gas emissions, Earth will zoom past the 1.5°C signpost around 2040, and as early as 2030. By 2050, the world needs to move towards zero carbon emissions or remove as much carbon dioxide from the air as it produces.

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The unprecedented flooding in Kerala, drought in Cape Town and searing heat waves in Europe are signs that climate change is already happening.

Reacting to the report, Neil Thorns, director of advocacy at Cafod, the worldwide development charity, said: "This report proves that keeping global temperatures to 1.5C is a necessity, not an ambition".

But the report warned such techniques were still unproven at a large scale and could carry significant risks for sustainable development.

The report notes that we are now at a warming of about 1.0°C, with the warming trend rolling along at 0.2±0.1°C per decade.

"It is clear that governments must be preparing now to commit to much stronger 2030 targets under the Paris Agreement that need to be submitted by all governments no later than 2020; and they have to ditch coal".

The IPCC, an global consortium comprised of hundreds of climate change researchers assembled by the United Nations, said "the next few years are probably the most important in our history".

The IPCC report was released just as this year's Nobel Prize for Economics was awarded to two professors studying the economic impact of climate change.

The Minister, who used to work in the mining sector, suggested the 91 scientists behind the IPCC report had got it wrong.

Working Group I assesses the physical science basis of climate change; Working Group II addresses impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; and Working Group III deals with the mitigation of climate change.

The 2015 Paris Agreement sets a goal to cap the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 degrees above pre-industrial levels.

Global net emissions of carbon dioxide would need to fall by 45% from 2010 levels by 2030 and reach "net zero" around 2050 in order to keep the warming around 1.5 degrees C.

"We welcome the conclusions of this historic report, one that should give the worldwide community not just a wake-up call, but also hope that we can avoid the most devastating impacts of climate change", said Bill Hare, Climate Analytics CEO.

Enlarge / Benefits and trade-offs of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C for different categories of development goals. "Limiting warming to 1.5°C, compared with 2°C, is projected to result in smaller net reductions in yields of maize, rice, wheat, and potentially other cereal crops, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, and Central and South America", it added.


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