One of the aircraft's turbines is seen badly damaged after it apparently hit the barrier.
But while airline officials reported two of the 128 people on the plane were taken to hospital as a precaution, Global Affairs said all Canadians on board were believed to be unhurt.
The aircraft went to the end of the runway where spikes created to halt its progress burst several tires, he said, noting that several passengers were screaming and praying by that point.
During a press conference, it was announced that there were 118 passengers (including 82 Canadian citizens) and eight crew members on board.
It returned to Georgetown's Cheddi Jagan International Airport just before 2am local time (6am GMT).
Of that number, six persons received minor injuries.
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The plane struck a fence and a heap of sand before coming to a stop at around 2.53a.m.
Officials at Fly Jamaica said flight OJ256, which was headed to Toronto, had to make an emergency landing because of a technical problem.
"They are all stable and are being looked at", Patterson said, adding that all the passengers and crew on board had been accounted for with "no reports of any broken bones or such". An emergency inflatable slide had been deployed from one of the front doors.
Bowen said 120 passengers and crew were on the plane. A hotline has been set up for family members looking for information at +592-261-2281 or +592-600-7022.
In July 2011, a Boeing 737-800 aircraft belonging to Trinidad-based Caribbean Airlines crashed at Cheddi Jagan after landing too far down the runway and running out of braking space, injuring several people.